Functions of Digestive System and Excretory System
The digestive and excretory systems are subsystems of human body and are connected to each other. The digestive system is responsible for providing fuel required for the proper working of human body whereas excretory system manages and removes the waste out of human body. The description for the working of digestive system and excretory system is as follow:
Human Digestive system
The human digestive system is constructed of hollow tube like organs. You may wonder to know that if you place digestive system parts one after the other, the formation will be 9 meter long!
It is hunger or thirst that directs us to eat some food or drink any liquid (in most cases it is water). As soon as we put the food in our mouth and start chewing it the process of digestion begins. Chewing is very important in digestion process. Properly chewed food decreases the stress on other involved organs like esophagus. Chewing is also an indicator for other parts that food is coming and release of hydrochloric acid is triggered. The chewed food is swallowed and moved into the esophagus, a muscular tube connecting throat and stomach. At this step the process of digestion becomes automatic. Esophagus takes the food from throat to the stomach entrance.
Near stomach there is a muscular ring which acts as valve and keeps the entrance from Esophagus to stomach close. But when food reaches near the stomach muscles relaxed and food enters into the stomach. The top muscle of stomach is relaxed so that large amounts of food and liquids can be stored into the stomach. The function of the lower stomach is to mix the food and liquids with the digestive juices produced by stomach. This is done by altering muscle tension. After mixing all the contents the mixed material is forced to move into small intestine again by muscle movement.
In small intestine food is further broken down into smaller molecules. This is done with the help of enzymes produced by pancreas and small intestine. The small intestine is very important organ as it absorbs fat and nutrients necessary for the cell growth and to produce other forms of energy for body functioning.
In the last of digestion process, after the nutrients are absorbed by the walls of intestine from the food mixture, what remains of the food is called waste. Waste produced during the digestion process contains unused parts and fiber.
Both, the digestive system and excretory system, work together and interact with each other through nervous system. Excretory system is as necessary as digestive system. Unusable materials and fiber remains of digestion process are very dangerous for human body. In absence of excretory system our bodies would be filled with poisonous materials like Nitrogen which is produced after protein metabolism.
Working of Excretory system: Excretory system comes into frame after the completion of digestion system. It deals with solid waste and liquid waste separately. After small intestine the food is moved into large intestine. Here some liquids and electrolytes are removed from the remains and can be counted in digestion process. There are many types of bacteria that help in further digestion of these remains. The Food remains that couldn’t be utilized are moved into descending colon and then to sigmoid colon. When colon gets filled muscles force the waste to travel towards the rectum unit. Then solid waste is gathered in rectum and finally moved out excreted through the anus. This is what is called nature call.
Excretion process of liquid waste can be understood by knowing the functions of involved organs and parts. The following are the parts and their functioning in the same order they take part in the process:
The following are the organs and their function in Excretory System:
Aorta – Aorta provides a pathway for blood to reach kidneys and other body parts.
Kidneys: The kidneys filter the blood using nephrons (made up of small filtering units) for liquid waste and ureain the form of urine which is stored in bladder.
Bladder – Bladder is a hollow organ found in the lower part of the abdomen kept in place by ligaments attached to other organs. The bladder walls are formed with detrusor muscles. It can increase its volume by expanding its walls. It stores Fluid waste called urine. Detrusor muscles squeeze and the urine out of the body through urethra.
Ureters: There are two ureters in our body. Their function is move the urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
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