The organisms studied botany
The object of study of botany, then , a group of organisms distantly related to each other, the cyanobacteria , the fungi , the algae and land plants , which have hardly any characters in common except the presence of chloroplasts (with the exception of fungi and cyanobacteria) or not having mobility.
In the field of botany is necessary to distinguish between pure botany , which aims to expand knowledge of nature , and applied botany , whose research in the service of agricultural technology, forestry and pharmaceutical industries. His knowledge affects many aspects of our lives and therefore it is a discipline studied, as well as biologists, pharmacists, engineers, agronomists, foresters, and others.
Botany covers a wide range of content, including specific aspects of the plants themselves, of the biological sciences dealing with the chemical (phytochemical ), the cellular organization ( plant cytology ) and tissues (plant histology ), the metabolism and operation organic ( plant physiology ), growth and development , the morphology ( phytography ) of reproduction , of heredity ( genetic plant); of disease ( plant pathology ) adaptations to the environment ( ecology ) of geographical distribution ( phytogeography orgeobotanical ), of the fossils ( palaeontology ) and evolution .
The idea that nature can be divided into three kingdoms (mineral, vegetable and animal) was proposed by N. Lemery (1675) and popularized by Linnaeus in the eighteenth century.
While after separate kingdoms were proposed for fungi (in 1783), protozoa (in 1858) and bacteria (1925) seventeenth-century conception that there were only two kingdoms of organisms dominated the biology of three centuries. The discovery of the protozoa in 1675, and the bacteria in 1683, both made by Leeuwenhoek, eventually began to undermine the system of two kingdoms. However, a general agreement among scientists about the living world should be classified in at least five kingdoms, was achieved only after the discoveries made by electron microscopy in the second half of the twentieth century. These findings confirmed that there were fundamental differences between bacteria and eukaryotes , and also revealed ultrastructural the tremendous diversity of protists . The widespread acceptance of the need for multiple realms to include all living beings also owes much to the systematic synthesis of Herbert Copeland(1956) and the influential works of Roger Y. Stanier (1961-1962) , and Robert H. Whittaker (1969). In the six realms system, proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1983 and revised in 1998, the bacteria are treated in a single kingdom ( Bacteria ) and eukaryotes are divided into five kingdoms: Protozoa ( Protozoa ), animals ( Animalia ), fungi ( Fungi ), plants ( Plantae ) and Chromista (algae whosechloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and d , as well as other organisms without chlorophyll associated with them). The nomenclature of the latter three kingdoms, classical object of study of botany, is subject to the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature of which are published by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (known by the acronym 'IAPT', an acronym forInternational Association for Plant Taxonomy ). This association, founded in 1950, its mission is the promotion of all aspects of Systematic Botany and its importance for the understanding of biodiversity, including recognition, organization, development and naming of fungi and plants, both living and fossil.
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