The Dawn of Collective Farming in different Countries, Disadvantages and Failure
As we all know, farming was one of the main occupations in large parts of the world during the 17th and 18th centuries. The industries were developed much after that. As the small scale industries developed, the concept of urbanization came into existence. Small towns were built and people left the rural areas and settled in small towns in search of job and small business. This transformation is prolonging even till today bringing in the concept of urbanization. This has resulted many small scale and large scale industries. Back in the rural areas agriculture lands have reduced, a lot of deforestation, the agricultural output has significantly decreased. However, today a lot of methods have been developed for increasing the gross national income of these agro based goods.
In this process, the method of collective farming was introduced by the Russians in the year 1917. As the farmers lacked sufficient investment to develop their lands, farmers pooled their land, domestic animals and agricultural implements to work, retaining their private property for themselves. They put in all their money in order to increase profits and then shared their profits.
As mentioned earlier, this was first developed by Russians in the year 1917, and became general after the 1930's. However, Stalin's collectivization during 1929-33 ruined the flourishing agricultural systems and separated the soviet peasants from their lands. During this time, millions of people became homeless, sent to labor camps and among these some were deported to Siberia. The consequences resulted in a lot of peasants losing their lives. Later the process of collective farming was practiced in large numbers in China and Israel during 1953.
Likewise a lot of other countries also practiced this method such as Romania, Moldova, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, SFR Yugoslavia, Peoples of Republic of China, North Korea, Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Cuba. All these countries practiced collective farming after the 1950's. Some of the other countries which also followed were Europe, India, Israel and Mexico. China started this process in the year 1955 and by 1956, 96% of the farming households became part of the cooperatives. It is said that the commune in china was more strictly organized than that of the Soviet Union. It included a wider range of activities, emphasizing more on the communal type of living which included the non-agriculturists as well. However, the system failed to free labor and capital required for the industrial expansion and in 1958 the commune system was established. Virtually, all the Chinese workers became members of the commune by 1959. The inefficiency and management problems of large collectives, coupled with natural disasters and government errors, led to reforms. Hence, the communes were decentralized and some of them were divided into private farms.
Like China and the Soviet Union, communal farming was not very popular in North America. However, one of the agriculturist communities called the Hutterites, who were immigrants from South Dakota in 1874 due to the prosecution in the Central Europe, brought communcal farming to the American land. In Israel, collective farms used to pay nominal rents to the Jewish National Fund, however people had the land in their own names. The Israel collectives had three models. Out of the three, the Kibbutz was the most well known of all. It was inaugurated in the year 1909, which was purely an agricultural collective. In the 1920, the light industry was added; this included the small businesses and tourism as well. In a traditional kibbutz, except specified personally possessions, all the property of the people belong to the collectively owned. They planned and worked collectively and the rule was communal living. The work was assigned to the people based on their ability and skill. Foremen were assigned and goods were distributed according to the needs. This later had a political influence until the 1980's.
Stuart Owens - About Author:
Stuart is freelance writer who has written on topics such as agriculture and technology earlier. He practices collecting and sharing information through his Verizon FiOS Internet and reaches out to a larger audience.
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