Pollination and agriculture
Furthermore, the intestinal contents, the mouthparts and structure of the wings of certain beetles and fliessuggest that they must have acted as pollinators. The first floral pollination syndromes, emerged.
The association between beetles and angiosperms in the Cretaceous early evolutionary radiations took both salt and others in the late Cretaceous. The evolution of nectaries or organs producing nectarsignal the beginning of an insect mutualism between hymenopterans and angiosperms.
In agriculture , the desire for fruit or seed in abundance has led most of the time to use plants that are not dependent and external vectors for pollination, or at least used as a vector overflowing wind . For example, most cereals are anemógamos or directly self-pollinated. However, many agricultural crops worldwide (for example, many fruits and vegetables ) are dependent on pollination by insects and other animals.
It is a mistake to believe that pollination is a "free ecological service" of nature. Effective pollination needs some resources, such as shelters natural vegetation and habitats suitable for pollinators. When these are reduced or lost, limiting the activity of pollinators and adaptive management practices needed to maintain livelihoods.
Indeed, worldwide agricultural biodiversity and agroecosystem faces the danger that pollinator populations are declining. The main cause of this problem are the fragmentation of habitats, agricultural and industrial chemicals, the parasites and diseases , and the introduction of exotic species . In California , producers of almonds honey bees usually imported from other states of the United States to ensure the pollination of their crops. This transport can contribute to epidemics.
It's called bee flora , flora nectífera or flora polinífera to all plants, shrubs and herbs that inhabit a particular region and are of economic interest forbeekeeping .
The economic importance of the bee flora is that not all plant species are of interest for beekeeping. Under a species may be very nectífera but may have a low weighting in the number of individuals per hectare, use a hive that has on the plant species is of low economic importance. Other plants make a great contribution of pollen , but their flowers delivered little nectar .
The staggering of flowering is also an important factor, there are plants that bloom early, and encourage the hive to start playing and there are plant species that make it on throughout the year. While most flowers in spring and summer season.
Beekeepers in the course of generations know the bee flora of each site, using the same, even at the cost of removal or transhumance of their hives, at the end of achieving a staggering nectíferos and resources of pollen.
Depending on the country or continent where beekeeping is practiced, the beekeeper knows to make the transhumance of hives from the valley to the mountain meadows. Or move north or south (depending on the hemisphere ) to take advantage of the flora of tropical or subtropical origin plus. He knows the timing or phenology of each plant species flower, you want to explode. It's very different honeys produced in forests, grasslands or honey.
It is simpler to produce honey in widespread crop in the world by man, by virtue that it is feasible to manage the phenological cycles of the same and just change the planting season if we are in one hemisphere or the other.
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