MCTS Exam the first step is to specifically establish the overarching breadth
Within a few years, the old method of IP address class ranges will become obsolete. With the advent of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), the Internet now has simply so many differ- ent addressing assignments available on both the network and host levels that it’s unlikely we?ll run out any time in the near future, but stranger things have happened. Regardless, for the next few years, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) will remain the most commonly used addressing assignment system in use.
When designing a network, the first step is to specifically establish the MCITP: Server Administrator overarching breadth of what your design will need to encompass. This can vary wildly based on budget, number of users, addressing conventions (IPv4 or IPv6), and expectations of growth. At the top level, you first decide the addressing scheme you’re going to use based on your needs within an address range.
IPv4 uses a set of four octets to create an individual, but not necessarily unique, logical address that can be used for the purposes of routing packets across networks. This is then further de?ned by a subnet mask, which partitions the address into different subnets for the purpose of sending and receiving broadcast traffic. At the top level, IP addresses are divided into ?ve different classes that use a certain amounts of bits in the subnet mask for the net- work portion of your network and a certain amount of bits for your various hosts. It’s rare that you’ll discover a network administrator who uses all ?ve classes of IPv4 addresses. For the most part, you are concerned with three different class levels of IP addresses: Class A, Class B, and Class C, which are described in Table 2.1. Each of these addressing classes has its own strengths and weaknesses, in that each can assign only a certain number of IP addresses based on the number of available host bits in the subnet mask.
Address Class Network Bits Available Host Bits Hosts
Class A 8 24 16,777,214
Class B 16 16 65,534
Class C 24 8 254
Furthermore, each of these classes of networks is assigned certain ranges that will be prede?ned for your network design. Given your address class, you will fall into one of the ranges of Table 2.2.
TABLE 2.2 IPv4 Address Class Network Range
Address Class Network Range
Class A 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168
Class B 22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199
Class C 192.0.0.0 to 188.8.131.52
When designing an addressing scheme, choosing (or discovering) your address class is your very first step. You need to determine both how many networks you require in your infrastructure and, perhaps more important, how many users are contained within MCITP these networks. Once you have determined this, you can then begin the process of subnetting your network.
Unlike its younger brother, IPv4, IPv6 no longer uses address classes. Instead, IPv6 uses pre?xes that are subdivided by geographic locations around the world. Within those regions, the addresses are then subdivided more and more until its gets down to the individ- ual level. In effect, this removes the need for the old fallback of the IPv4 addressing system, Network Address Translation (NAT). By design, IPv6 allows for every individual computer to theoretically have both a unique MAC address and a unique logical IP address, because so many addresses are available. Unlike IPv4, IPv6 uses eight quartets, making for a total of 128 bits worth of addressing space available.
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