Divisions of Botany
In general, all these directions of work are based on comparative analysis of particular phenomena and its variability, to arrive at a generalization and recognition of regular relations that link these phenomena together. Always asociasre static and dynamic methods: on the recognition and interpretation of the structures and shapes, on the other hand, analysis of vital processes, functions and phenomena of development. The ultimate goal of both methods should be in any case the understanding of the forms and functions in their interdependence and their evolution.
The different points of view described and the use of different methods have led to in Botany have developed many disciplines. First, you could quote the morphology , which is broadly speaking, is the general theory of the structure and form of plants, and includes cytology andhistology . The first deals with the study of the thin constitution of cells and is associated, in the aspects related molecules, with some parts of Molecular Biology . Histology is the study of plant tissues. Cytology and Histology, together, are necessary to understand the anatomy of plants, that is, its internal constitution.
When dealing with the adaptation process, the morphology is related to the ecology , a discipline that investigates the relations between the plant and its environment. Such relationships are based on studies of plant physiology , which deals with so-general-the study of how they perform the functions of the plant and the fields of metabolism , shape change (including growth and development of the plant) and movements. The reproduction of plants and how they are inherited and the characters change through the generations is the field of genetics .
The Systematic Botany tries to find the similarities that exist between different types of plants, based on the results of all the disciplines mentioned above, among which, next to the morphology, are important cytology, anatomy, palynology (the study of spores and pollen ), theEmbryology (whose field is the study of sexual generation and the embryo ), the Phytochemistry (substances produced and contained in plants), Genetics and Geobotánica or Phytogeography. As part of Systematics, mention above all the taxonomy , which deals with the description, classification and management of existing plant species, which surpassed the number of 330,000. She added the study of plant evolutionary history ( phylogeny ), which is supported especially in paleobotany , the study of plants that lived in other geological eras and theevolution , illustrating sovereign laws and causes governing the formation of plant strains.
Finally, there are branches in the study of botany dealing in a special way of particular groups of organisms, which Microbiology (who studiesmicroorganisms in general, including many of those who consider plant organisms), the Bacteriology (which deals of bacteria ), the Mycology(who studies fungi ), the Phycology (which studies the algae), the Lichenology (the study of lichens ), the Bryology (the study of bryophytes : the mosses and liverworts ), the Pteridología ( study of ferns ). 28 two different disciplines are also applied to study the practical value of the plants to humans and therefore liaise with the Agriculture , the Forestry and Pharmacy , among others. Examples of these disciplines can be mentioned Genetic Improvement of Plants (studying the genetic variability and selection of plants), plant pathology (dealing with plant diseases and control methods thereof), the Pharmacognosy ( studying medicinal plants and their active ingredients).
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