Floral syndrome : Flowers
These include characters such as shape, size, color, type and amount of reward, nectar chemical composition, time and time of flowering. For example, tubular flowers, red with abundant nectar attract birds, the bad odor and color of rotting flesh to attract certain types of flies. The syndromes are the result of convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures.
Types of floral syndromes
floral syndromes abiotic
They do not attract animals. However, the flowers have shared sets of characters. (Gymnosperms and flowering plants are also wind-pollinated and their reproductive organs resemble anemophilous plant flowers).
Pollination by wind ( anemofilia )
The flowers are usually girls, inconspicuous, green, inconspicuous. Produce large amounts of pollen grains small and light that are easily carried by the wind. So the pollen of anemophilous plants usually cause allergies. In contrast, pollen from plants pollinated by animals are rarely allergenic. They have feathery stigmas to catch the pollen grains. Grow up in communities of low diversity and are often the highest copies of their communities. In some cases they are visited by insects collect pollen but do not pollinate, so do not exert a selective pressure on the evolution of floral characters.
Pollination by water ( hydrophilic )
Certain aquatic plants produce pollen transported by water. They produce small and inconspicuous flowers. Pollen grains have special adaptations to be carried by water and are highly branched stigmas to catch the pollen grains. It should be noted that not all aquatic plants are pollinated by water. Many produce flowers that emerge on the surface and are pollinated by animals.
Biotic floral syndromes
Most flowering plants are pollinated by animals. They are classified according to the type of animals that pollinate them. The most common insects, so sometimes the terms entomofilia zoophilia and confused. Below is a list of the most accepted bestiality syndromes.
Pollination by bees ( melittophily )
Flowers pollinated by bees are grouped into two classes:
? Colorful, open, radially symmetrical, bowl-shaped and relatively unspecialized (eg wild rose, daisies, etc.).
? Colorful, complicated, and specialized bilateral symmetry (flowers of the family Fabaceae ).
Most of these flowers are yellow or blue, often with ultraviolet nectar guides. Provide amounts of pollen, nectar, or both in varying quantities. The sucrosetends to be the predominant sugar.
Pollination by other Hymenoptera
Many species of wasps visit flowers for nectar and pollen carried a variety of types of flowers that in many cases correspond to the description of melittophily or not easily correspond to a particular syndrome. Other highly specialized wasps visit flowers, orchids Ophrys . Males are attracted by its appearance and smell similar to those of females of these species and try to mate. Figs have a highly specialized type of pollinating wasps, figs wasps (family Agaonidae ).
Ants also are frequent visitors to the flowers but rarely perform pollination.
Pollination by flies
Certain types of flowers are pollinated by flies, odor and color of rotting flesh and attract carrion flies trying to lay their eggs in them ( Miofilia and Sapromiofilia ). So pollinate without receiving any benefit.
Many flowers are pollinated melitofílico type flies, flies especially syrphids . If weather conditions are not conducive to the bees, flies can get to make the most of the pollination of flowers melitofílicas.
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