The term chloroplasts
The chloroplasts are the organelles in cell bodies eukaryotic photosynthetic dealing with photosynthesis . They are limited by an envelope formed by two membranes and contain concentric vesicles, the thylakoids , which are organized pigments and other molecules that convert light energy into energy chemistry, such as chlorophyll .
The term chloroplasts used interchangeably to refer to any plastid dedicated to photosynthesis, or specifically to own green plastids of green algae and plants .
The two membranes of the chloroplast have a different structure entirely delimiting continuing the chloroplast. Both are separated by a space called intermembrane space periplastidial sometimes wrongly. The outer membrane is permeable by the presence of porins , but less so than the inner membrane, which contains proteins specific for transport. The internal cavity called stroma , in which reactions are carried out fixing CO 2 , contains DNA circular ribosomes (70S type, such as bacterial ), granules of starch , lipids and other substances. Also, a number of sacs bounded by a membrane called thylakoids in the chloroplasts of land plants are arranged in stacks called grana (plural of granum , grain). Thylakoid membranes containing substances such as the photosynthetic pigments ( chlorophyll , carotenoids , xanthophylls ) and various lipids, proteins of the electron transport chain photosynthetic and enzymes such as ATP-synthetase .
Looking at the structure of the chloroplast and compare it to the mitochondria , we note that has two sets of membrane , defining an internal compartment (matrix) and an outer, space perimitochondrial, while the chloroplast has three, forming three compartments, intermembrane space, the stroma and intratilacoidal space.
Chloroplasts are green pigment that makes up the chlorophyll. Here, synthesize glucose to fulfill the function of photosynthesis of autotrophic organisms.
It is the organelle where it performs photosynthesis . There are two phases, taking place in different compartments:
Light phase : It takes place in the membrane of the thylakoids , where is the electron transport chain and ATP synthetase responsible for converting light energy into chemical energy ( ATP ) generation and reducing power ( NADPH ).
In Phytopathology , the chlorosis is a physiological condition in which abnormal foliage produces insufficient chlorophyll . When this happens, the leaves do not have the normal green color, the color is pale green, yellow, yellow-white. Affected plants have reduced their ability to form carbohydrates and may die if the cause of his failure chlorophyll untreated. Specific deficiencies of nutrients (often aggravated by a high pH ) produce chlorosis, which could be corrected by supplementing with iron , magnesium and nitrogen in various combinations. You may also be due to excess calcium. Some pesticides , particularly herbicides , can cause chlorosis, both the weeds and occasionally treated cultures. Also be due to an excess or defect of irrigation, various parasites, infectious diseases (such as citrus tristeza) or to be planted in the ground or firm ground too deep.
In Botany , the coleoptile and coleoptile (also coleoptile ) is a characteristic structure of the embryo of the family of grasses , which is actually a first sheet amended so that a cap is closed on the following sheets and meristem apical . Coleoptile grows only a few centimeters until it is perforated by the pressure of the underlying sheets are continuing shoot growth.
During the germination of the seed, the coleptile approaches the soil surface due to the elongation of the mesocotyl . At the time that the apex of the coleoptile receives light, even under the soil surface, resumes its growth, stretching and producing the seedling emergence. Consistent character and its tapered end, in the form of a hardened pointed sheath at its upper end, makes it a specialized structure to achieve the emergency. Immediately following the coleoptile appears on the ground gives way to the cotyledonary leaf and the first true leaf in quick succession.
The collenchyma is a supporting tissue present in young plants and herbs . The name comes from the Greek for "rubber", "tail", named for the ease with which the cell walls swell upon hydration. Provides flexibility for young stems, petioles and nerves of the leaves. Generally, their distribution is subepidermal (below the skin tissue ).
Is formed by living cells (unlike the sclerenchyma ) and elongated, rich in water and observed pectic substances bright under the light microscope and with the thick cell wall made ??of cellulose. The cells of this tissue have slightly wider primary walls in certain areas, and its cytoplasm may contain chloroplasts and vacuoles with crystals.
Several types of collenchyma, according to cell shape and location of the thickening of the walls:
Angle : with thickening at the corners.
Tangential, laminar or lamellar : thickening on tangential or periclinal walls.
Lagoon : with thickening in the walls that limit the intercellular space.
Massively : a derivative with strong growth on all the walls.
For the characteristics of their cell wall, are very resistant comtra crushing circumstances which ensures mechanical plant resistance.
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