Surgical Instruments uses and precautions
Surgical instruments are specially designed tools, used for performing specific function during a surgery or operation such as modifying the biological tissue by holding, cutting, retracting, dissecting, grasping, or provide access to view it properly. Surgical instruments are generally made by stainless steel, other metals like titanium, chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum, are also used for making some surgical instruments.
Surgical instruments are mainly of two types, some are used in general surgery, some are special equipments which are needed for a specific procedure or surgery. With the requirement and advancement in the medical studies, different kinds of surgical instruments and tools have been invented like needle holder, forceps, retractor, clamp, speculum and more.
Classification of Surgical instruments:
Surgical instruments are broadly classified in several categories:
Hand held equipment:
Hand held equipment, are most common and are of general use. These equipment are easy to be recognized regardless of the different patterns, designs, and sizes, They are used for specific surgeries. These equipment includes Hemostatic Forceps, Soft Tissue Forceps, Needle Holders, Scissors, Retractors, Biopsy Needles, Suction Tubes etc.
Flexible and Rigid endoscopes:
Flexible and rigid endoscopes are those equipments which require light carriers and fiber optic cords such as Endoscopic equipments. These are used to view the body organs, either through an orifice such as the mouth or anus, or through small puncture cites over joints or in the abdomen. Flexible scopes include gastrointestinal scopes, sigmoidoscopes, bronchoscopes and colonoscopes. While rigid endoscopes include resectoscopes, arthroscopes, cystoscopes, laparoscopes and hysteroscopes.
As the name suggest, powered instruments are backed up either by electrical or by battery. Even, some are powered by compressed medical gasses, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or compressed air, These equipment are generally referred as pneumatic or air-powered instruments. Pneumatic instruments include reamers, drills, screwdrivers, and saws used by orthopedic and some neurosurgeons.
Preparation before use
Instruction for using the surgical instruments may vary from different instruments, and medical training required by physicians and dentists to on-the-job training for orderlies and aides. These instruments are to be prepared according to the professional protocols and prescribed procedures.
Usually, all instruments are sterilized before use, to avoid unnecessary infection and transmission of disease viruses. Surgical Instruments must be clean and dry before use. Some times it becomes necessary to clean the instruments during the surgery to prevent blood and other tissues from hardening and becoming trapped on the surface of an instrument.
The main risk associated with surgical instruments is transmission of infection or disease due to improper cleaning, sterilization and handling techniques. There are also life threatening risk which arises by improper use or technique by an operator. So it's advisable that always use disposable instruments if available otherwise be careful about the used and uncleaned equipment.
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