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Leaves of some palms

By Seolncr Subscribe to RSS | April 24th 2012 | Views:

In Botany , it is called capital for training with the leaves of some palms pinnate, which form a sleeve or sheath at the apex of the stipe . These structures are called that way because they remember the element architecture which provides at the upper end of the columns called precisely spire .

Shaped column, and usually a different color to normal color of the stem may be green ( Roystonea spp. ), red ( Cyrtostachys renda ), or be stormy, etc., so it can be very ornamental.

The older leaves of the capital are the outside of the capital. Eventually, cuande the lower leaves die are separated from the plant and expose the stem surface hiding and revealing another pod follows.

In some species of palms the capital is very inconspicuous or difficult to determine. Some palms do not have capital in its young state.

A capsule is a type of fruit dry dehiscent (ie, that opens to release mature seeds ), composed of at least two carpels . Generally contains more than one seed in each. Is formed from an ovary súpero , and dehiscence can take many forms:

septicidal , ie opening of the joint between carpels, as in Digitalis ;

loculicida , ie each carpel opening separately, as in the tulips ( Tulipa spp.);

septífraga , ie by opening the septa in planes parallel to the central axis of the fruit, whose internal parts remain attached to the axial column, as in the mission cedar ( Cedrela tubiflora );

placentífraga , ie, opening by two parallel slits close to the placenta;

foraminal or valve , ie pores opening in the upper surface of the capsule, through which escape the seeds by shaking the fruit wind;

tooth , ie the apex opening and forming a flange carpelar toothing at the top;

circle or cross , called pyxes .

Some capsules tend to explode at maturity, scattering the seeds by the very force of the explosion in the call autocoria .

The capsules are often mixed with nuts , like Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa ) and horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum ), but differs from these fruits to be dehiscent.

In botany , chapter is a type of inflorescence racemose or open in which the stalk is widened at the tip forming a rather thick disc, called a common receptacle or clinanto. This common receptacle is surrounded by one or more series of bracts . On this body have the flowers sessile (without pedicels) with or without their corresponding bracts. Inflorescence is typical of the family Compositae ( Asteraceae ), as well as some other families, such as dipsacáceas .

In Botany , a carcérulo is a fruit , dry and indehiscent, the pericarp leathery papyraceus or separated from the seed . Is a fruit schizocarpic, ie from a ovarian simple, consisting of two carpels joined together, in which the cores are separated from each other to simulate fruit maturity derived from several ovaries or more free carpels. The carcérulo, also called tetraquenio, consists of four achenes , so that each comes achene half of a carpel. Each locule contains a single seed and are called mericarps separate cores. It is the fruit typical of families of Labiatae and Boraginaceae .

A caryopsis or caryopsis is a type of fruit simple, similar to achene , formed from a single carpel , dry and indehiscent . Here the integument and pericarp have merged, forming a protective skin. Also called grain , is the type of fruit typical of grasses (Poaceae) or cereals: wheat ( Triticum spp.), rice ( Oryza sativa ) and maize ( Zea mays ) form caryopses. In many cases, the "shells" that protect these fruits are the remains of the bracts floral lining that, in itself, the integument has been incorporated into the part that is consumed.

The carpels are leaves that form the female reproductive part of flower plants of angiosperms . Are the basic unit of the gynoecium . By its nature as backing sheets of megaspores (or macrósporas) cells whose product is formed by the gametophyte female (embryo sac), the carpels are megasporofilos (or macrosporofilos).

All the carpels of a flower is the gynoecium. The soldiers can appear carpels forming a gynoecium only, or remain separate, each seated in the receptacle , forming as many separate carpels. We say in the first case the flower is gamocarpelar and dialicarpelar in the second.

The parties that is made each gynoecium are:

The ovary consists of the fertile region of the carpel, which encloses the seed primordia or eggs that are attached to a bump called placenta.

The style , which is missing in many cases, is a corner that connects the stigma to the ovary below.

The stigma , a papillose surface area, receiving grains pollen (each containing a gamete male) once they are released to him by the pollinator . Where there is style, is at its distal end and generally takes the form of a thickened, often divided into branches or areas as many as carpels contributing to the pistil.

All carpels form a pistil of a flower sincárpica contribute equally to each party listed.

The carpels are closed on themselves or each other to form one or more closed cavities (ovaries) where the seed primordia. " Angiosperm "means" enclosed seed ", and are named for the above reason. Exception to this rule are plants of the family Winteraceae .

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