History of Botany
From a utilitarian conception, on the other hand, the so-called applied Botany discipline was seen as a subsidiary of Health or Agriculture . In different periods of their evolution either approach has prevailed, although their origins dating from the eighth century C. - the predominant approach was applied.
Botany, like many other sciences, reached the first definite expression of their principles and problems in classical Greece and then continued its development during the time of the Roman Empire . Theophrastus , a disciple ofAristotle and considered the father of botany, bequeathed two important works are often noted as the origin of this science: From plantarum history ("History of the plants') and De Causis plantarum ('On the causes of the plants'). After the fall of the Empire in the century V , all the gains achieved in the classical antiquity had to be rediscovered from the twelfth century , lost or ignored by most of them during the late Middle Ages . The conservative tradition of the Church and the work of few individuals made progress, albeit very slowly, the knowledge of plants during this period.
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries botany developed as a scientific discipline, separate from herbalism and medicine, but continued to contribute to both. Several factors led to the development and progress of botany during these centuries: the invention of printing , the appearance of paper for the preparation of herbal , and the development of botanical gardens , all linked to the development of art and science of navigation that allowed the realization of botanical expeditions. All these factors together accounted for a significant increase in the number of known species and allowed the dissemination of local or regional knowledge on an international scale.
Driven by the works of Galileo , Kepler , Bacon and Descartes , the seventeenth century modern science originated. Due to the increasing need for European naturalists to exchange ideas and information, began to found the first scientific academies. Joachim Jungius was the first scientist who combined a mind trained in philosophy with accurate observations of the plants. He had the ability to define terms accurately and thus reduce the use of vague or arbitrary systematics. It is considered the founder of scientific language, which was developed later by the Englishman John Ray and perfected by the Swede Carl Linnaeus .
Linnaeus attributed to several innovations in core Taxonomy. First, the use of binomial nomenclature of the species in connection with a rigorous morphological characterization of the same. Second, the use of accurate terminology. Based on the work of Jungius, Linnaeus precisely defined several morphological terms that would be used in their descriptions of each species or genus , particularly those related to floral morphology and the morphology of the fruit . However, Linnaeus noticed the same flaws of your system and looked in vain for alternatives. His concept of the constancy of eachspecies was an obvious obstacle to achieving a natural setting and that this conception of the species denied the existence of natural variations, which are essential for the development of a natural system. This contradiction remained for a long time and was not resolved until 1859 with the work of Charles Darwin . During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries also originated two scientific disciplines, from that moment, they would have a profound influence on the development of all fields of botany: the Anatomy and Plant Physiology .
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