Features flowers quiropterofilia
The main features of the flowers pollinated by bats or quiropterofilia syndromes are:
? Flowers open and available pollen and nectar at night.
? Flower opening takes place later in the day.
? Striking parts ( petals , sepals or bracts ) white, cream, yellow or green or purple stained.
? Flowers usually last only one night.
? Perfume at night, strong odor, often fruity, sour, stale or suggesting fermentation.
? Flowers robust.
? Bell-shaped flowers or hole.
? Large amounts of nectar diluted (sometimes mucilaginous).
? Large amount of pollen , anthers large or many.
? Flowers in exposed positions (accessible to bats).
There may be overlap between birds and bats daytime and twilight and also among inflorescences pollinated pollinated by birds and bats. There are records of birds that visit some plants with quiropterofilia.
On the ground Siphocampylus sulfureus ( Lobeliaceae ), which belongs to a group ornithophily syndrome, there are characteristics intermediate between ornithophily and quiropterofilia. If you compare this species with other species of the same gender who have the syndrome ornithophily, S. sulfureus has a corolla with short tube and wide opening, opening under the lobe of the corolla, yellow instead of red, strong odor and nectar diluido.Sin however, compared with a species of the genus quiropterofilia syndrome, S . sulfureus corolla opening is narrow and short apex, flowers less rigid, less oriented upward and shorter stems. Then, considering the delicacy of the floral morphology , anthesis day and the dominance of sucrose in the nectar of these flowers indicate a ornithophily syndrome, on the other hand the strong smell, nocturnal nectar production and greenish yellow related to this plant with bats. This plant is considered as a form derived from the group of Syphocampylus since most of the plants of this genus are considered ornitofílicas species. Within this family, Lobeliaceae, quiropterofilia is considered to have evolved independently in various genres.
In Pseudobombax ellipticum ( Bombacaceae ), characteristics such as flower structure, anther dehiscence, nectar production primarily nocturnal quiropterofilia features match, and no doubt bats asLeptonycteris sanborni , Choeronycteris Mexican and leachii Glossophaga (Phyllostomidae) efficient pollinators are undeniable. However, these nectarivorous bats are not the only pollinators, three features suggest that birds have or have had an important role in pollination and evolution of these flowers, among them, the red color in some morphs, the maximum nectar production after the peak of visits by bats and diurnal nectar production.
The perfume of these flowers is often very similar to bats. Some plants have a smell of butyric acid similar to that found in fruits dispersed by bats. The odors produced flowers that attract nectar bats of the subfamilies Pteropinae and Macroglossinae Old World have scents like fruits that also consume 4
The exhibition of flowers outside the foliage can be obtained by putting bracts layered with space between them as in many Bombacaceae. Producing flowers on erect stems above as in Markhamiaand Oroxylum or in the inflorescence giant Agave . Another strategy is to let the leaves hang down like strands in stems (flagelifloría). The latter occurs in Musa , Parkia , Marcgravia among others and can be very obvious in species Macuna spp. where the stems of 10 m or more points lower flowers open in April an exposure of the flowers is also achieved by placing them in the trunk or branches (cauliflory). The cauliflory is virtually restricted to the tropics with about 1000 cases. Good examples are Crescentia , Permentiera , Durio and Amphitecna . In some genres such as Macuna and Kigeliaoccurs cauliflory and flagelifloría together or alternating in several species.
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